Tuesday, March 17, 2020
How to Write a Reaction Paper on Social Stratification If you are tasked with writing a reaction paper on social stratification, there are 7 points to keep in mind. Following all seven will ensure you can complete the task with relative ease. Narrowing the Goal The structure you use for a reaction paper on social stratification is really based first and foremost on the type of writing you are doing. You want to be on the lookout for what type of work required of you. You might be required to do a more creative piece, or you might be required to craft something more research based. In any case, the purpose or intent to your work will influence the structure you use. Requirements Look over the assignment details and instructions for any new information, terms that define the structure, limiting terms, or specifying terms for your reaction paper on social stratification. Following all of these are paramount to your overall success. Listing the Needed You need to create a list of the things you know about the subject and what you want to know still. This will help lead the way for your research efforts. Strength of Research You want to make sure your research is thorough and comprehensive, using only top notch sources for your work. Organization Check You want to double check the organization. Organization for this type of assignment is key. That means you want to be certain that the organization of your body paragraphs is on point. The only real way to verify this is to check which order works best for your purpose using an outline. In some cases, chronological order is actually best suited to your needs but in other cases, you might be better off presenting your data in order from strongest to weakest argument or from weakest to strongest argument. You need to present your reader with an adequate background to your subject. Whatever subject you choose, you need to conduct a literature review to showcase where youre coming from, what work other people have completed on this topic, and what you are going to add to their work. You want to really put everything into perspective for your reader from the very beginning. Formatting You also want to consider the format required of you. You may need to physically move things around or alter the presentation of your final work once it is done contingent upon the type of format required of you. If, for example, your teacher requires you to follow APA format, then you will need to include the appropriate headings and subheadings as well as the appropriately laid out title page whereas MLA format requires no title page. Asking the Questions If you have any questions about writing a reaction paper on social stratification, always ask your teacher as soon as possible. The sooner you reach out for clarification, the more time you afford yourself to get things done properly without running the risk of having to go back and start things over after you are midway through. This guide should make your life easier at least a bit. To back it up weÃ¢â¬â¢ve also gotten you our 12 facts and 20 topics on the subject of social stratification for reaction paper writing, enjoy!
Saturday, February 29, 2020
An Exploration of the US Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Was the United States Justified in Using the Atomic Bomb? On August 6, 1945 the United States dropped the first atomic bomb on the Japanese city, Hiroshima. To this day, this has been a controversial military strategy. Those who believe that the U.S. was justified in using the atomic bomb argue that more lives were saved, and that the JapaneseÃ¢â¬â¢s vigor and willingness to fight to the death forced the U.S. to extreme measures. On the other hand, those who thought using the atomic bomb was unjustified argue that the atomic bomb violated the principles of war, that it did not end World War II (WWII) sooner and it was not the ideal choice to use for WWII. Looking at proponents of the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ usage of the atomic bomb such as Hugh A. Halliday and Richard Frank, military historians, and Michael Kort, a professor of Social Science at Boston University, as well as opponents including policy analyst, John Siebert, Martin J Sherwin, a professor at George Mason University, and Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, a professor emeritus of History at th e University of California we intend to evaluate and summarize both sides of the discussion as to whether the United States was justified to drop the atomic bomb. Proponents of employing the atomic bomb argue that had the atomic bomb not been dropped and the original ground invasion was implemented more lives from either side would have been lost. JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s unwillingness to surrender forced the United States to the point that they did not know what it would take to end the war. To discuss these points, we will look at the arguments from Hugh A. Halliday, a military historian who served in the RCAFÃ¢â¬â¢s Air Historian, Canadian Forces Directorate of History, and Canadian War Museum, Michael Kort, a professor of Social Science at Boston University, and Richard B. Frank a military historian who served almost four years in the United States Army. Japan had an ingrained conviction that the purpose of life was to die for the Emperor which was seen in not only her militants but also in her civilians with civilian causalities ranging from 42,000 to 150,000 dead from suicide or battle. Ground invasion of Japanese home islands was an option that the U.S. government considered. However, estimates from General Douglas MacArthur, in favor of ground invasion, curbed the numbers to roughly 130,000 casualties; however, this did not include the 300,000 Allied prisoners of war (PoWs) nor the enemy civilian casualties. In addition to the ground invasion and bombardment, the U.S. planned to utilize a blockade that was projected to cause famine, ensuing thousands of civilian deaths. Though roughly 200,000 people were killed thru the atomic bomb, it was still the morally preferred choice compared to the estimated deaths via an invasion. However, Michael Kort argues that it was never about deciding to use the atomic bomb versus implementing a ground invasion, but rather what it would take to have Japan surrender. The United States had been bombing Japan for three years prior to the Potsdam Declaration. She had already suffered an estimated 806,000 casualties in Okinawa and Tokyo. And yet when the U.S. had the Potsdam Declaration that gave Japan a chance to surrender, she not only chose to ignore it but also sought negotiations with the Soviet Union, to the extent of bargaining alliance benefits. Thus, the United States hoped that the sheer destructive power of the atomic bomb could persuade Japan to surrender and thus put an end to WWII. Advocates against utilizing the atomic bomb contend that it was a violation of the principles of war as well as the Geneva Protocol, which banned the usage of chemical weapons in war. Furthermore, in response to the belief that the atomic bomb lead to the shortening of WWII, the reason that Japan surrender was because of the USSR declaring war against her as well as invading Japanese-occupied land. In addition, had the United States adjusted the Potsdam Declaration, Japan would have been more inclined to agree to its terms. In order to analyze these arguments, we will discuss the points of John Siebert, a policy analyst who served in the Department of Foreign Affairs and Human Rights and Aboriginal Justice with the United Church of Canada as well as a consultant to government and non-governmental organizations, Martin J. Sherwin, a Pulitzer winner and professor of History at George Mason University, and Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, a professor emeritus of History at the University of Californi a. Arguably there are principles of war that are commonly agreed upon such as not directly targeting non-military establishments and non-militants. However, the United States knowingly targeted civilian cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. And had Henry L. Stimson, former U.S. Secretary of War, not opposed the Target Committee, they would have chosen Kyoto, the center of JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s civilization for over a thousand years. Moreover, after the practice of mustard gas as well as other chemical weapons in World War I, the Geneva Protocol was created and signed by members of the League of Nations, banning the use of chemical weapons in war. But though the United States was aware of the radiation poisoning that would occur from the atomic bomb, it was still deployed. By exploiting the atomic bomb, the U.S. indicated that nuclear arms were valid weapons of war. Aside from the moral discretions of implementing the atomic bomb, the argument that the atomic bomb led to the end of WWII sooner is invalid. Because the USSR declared war against Japan and invaded Japanese-controlled land, Japan could not ensure success in fighting both fronts and thus surrendered. Ward Wilson, Senior Fellow and Director of the Re-thinking Nuclear Weapons, remarked that Japanese leaders said it was the atomic bomb that led to their surrender as it was less embarrassing to lose against a miracle weapon. Not only that but JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s military officials argued that they could convince the USSR to negotiate for better surrender terms than the unconditional surrender in the Potsdam Declaration. However, with the declaration of war, they no longer had a case to continue the war. Along with this, had the United States adjusted their Potsdam Declaration to indicate that the Emperor would not be held liable for the war under the unconditional surrender then perhaps Japan would have agreed. This is because her term for surrender was to preserve their imperial system and Japan was already known to hold her Emperor to a high-degree. Though Secretary of War Stimson did recommend this adjustment; unfortunately, Secretary of State, James Byrnes, vetoed it. Though the amendment was attempted yet vetoed, the U.S. could have invited the USSR to sign the Potsdam Declaration in doing so would show Japan that she could not rely on the USSR to aid her. Supporters of using the atomic bomb argue that the bomb saved more lives than the planned ground invasion and because of JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s disinclination to surrender the war despite heavily unfavorable odds provoked the U.S. to undergo drastic measures. Japanese peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s disposition to perish for their Emperor was unsettling and led to a high civilian casualty even prior to considerations of dropping the atomic bomb. This temperament to die rather than to be a prisoner is one of the teachings in bushido, a samurai heritage and code of ethics. The Japanese were taught from a young age bushido and to worship the Emperor, a descendent from the Sun Goddess. Because of this contempt of being PoWs, many times the Japanese would fight until they were killed or committed suicide. American soldiers would witness the horror of Japanese mothers holding their children and choosing to jump to their deaths rather than to be taken as prisoners. The U.S. estimated that a ground invasion would not only lead to losses on the Allied powers but also to a high casualty rate due to the extreme devotion the Japanese had to their Emperor. The Joint Chiefs of Staff assessed that the United States would experience 1.2 million casualties for the entire ground invasion operation, while personnel in the Navy Department estimated 1.7-4 million casualties (Trueman). These estimates were significantly larger than the roughly 200,000 people killed by the atomic bomb. Not known at the time, it was later found that the Japanese Army had trained a civilian militia of around 28 million men and women to defend the home islands should a ground invasion occur (Giangreco). A year after the dropping of the atomic bomb, Karl T. Compton, a member of TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s Interim Committee Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"a committee to advise the president about matters pertaining to the use of nuclear energy and weaponsÃ¢â¬ (Harry S Truman National Historic Site) Ã¢â¬â interviewed a Japanese Army officer asking him if they could have repelled Operation Downfall to which the officer responded Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ I do not think we could have stopped you.Ã¢â¬ When asked what the Japanese would have done, the officer responded Ã¢â¬Å"We would have kept on fighting until all Japanese were killed, but we would not have been defeated,Ã¢â¬ in which defeat meant the disgrace of surrendering (Compton). Not only that but the Japanese imperial system was corrupted by the influence of military officials who strongly desired to continue fighting despite the extremely detrimental predicament the country was in. Despite suffering 806,000 casualties in Okinawa and Tokyo, when the U.S. issued her Potsdam Declaration, Japan chose to try and invoke the aid of the USSR, who had a delicate relationship with the United States. And after the atomic bomb dropping on Hiroshima and given a three-day grace period to respond, significant Japanese military officials thought it unlikely that the U.S. would have another bomb. Even when Nagasaki was bombed, military officials refused to accept surrendering though the Emperor now suggested to accept the U.S. terms. It was not till days of continuous bombing after the atomic bombs usage that the Emperor firmly declared that Japan would indeed surrender the war. Thus, though there may have been implications of the Japanese surrendering, it was unlikely that they would have surrendered given the militaryÃ¢â¬â¢s obstinacy. That said those against the United States exploitation of the atomic bomb dispute that the United States not only violated the Geneva Protocol and principles of war but also legitimized the usage of the atomic bomb in wars to come. Though the United States targeted civilian cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, these cities were chosen because they centered around military production (Ã¢â¬Å"Hiroshima and Nagasaki Death TollÃ¢â¬ ). And though the Geneva Protocol banned chemical weapons use during war, the atomic bomb is not categorized under chemical weapons but rather as a nuclear weapon. However, in spite of not breaching the Geneva Protocol, the U.S. set the precedence for future countries to use nuclear weapons in future wars. It was also argued that the usage of the atomic bomb was not the reason for JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s surrender in its place it was the entry of the USSR into WWII. Japanese military officials used the USSR as a means of stalling Japan from agreeing to the terms of surrender, but when the USSR declared war against Japan, rather than concede and surrender, they came up with a different reason to avoid surrendering. Instead of teaming with the USSR to discuss better terms of surrender, Japanese militant officials argued that the U.S. did not have another atomic bomb and that even if she did she would be under public pressure to not use it. No matter what deleterious situation Japan came under, her military officials refused to surrender, whether it be the entry of the USSR or the dropping of the atomic bombs. However, the catastrophe from the atomic bombs was able to move the Emperor from his onlooker position into actively striving for JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s surrender. In addition to this proponents against the usage of the atomic bomb also reasoned that had the U.S. invited the USSR to sign the Potsdam Declaration then Japan military officers could not have tried to incite help from the USSR. However, the relationship of the U.S. and the USSR were already on shaky grounds and President Truman did not want to invite the USSR into the war as her objectives for involvement were unknown. And if the U.S. did add the USSR to the Potsdam Declaration then following JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s surrender, the USSR would be allowed to occupy a portion of JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s land (Heads of Governments). Robert Frank estimated that roughly 300,000 to 500,000 Japanese people, mostly civilians, would have died or vanished in Soviet captivity. Historians have debated over whether the United States was justified in using the atomic bomb against Japan in World War II. Proponents argue that the ingrained bushido in Japanese citizens led to the risk of substantial civilian casualties as well as the necessity to use catastrophic means to shake their conviction to not capitulate. Opponents assert that the U.S. broke principles of war and allowed a precedence to use nuclear weapons in war. As well as arguing that the atomic bomb was not the reason that WWII ended sooner and thus led to lives being saved, instead it was the entrance of the USSR that forced the Japanese to surrender. After evaluation of both sides of the discussion, the strongest argument for the usage of the atomic bomb is that the bushido in Japanese culture startled the U.S. and led her to believe that extreme measures would be necessary to put an end to the war. While the strongest contention against the usage of the atomic bomb is that it legitimized the usage of nuclear weapons in war. Subsequently, though the United States ethically should not have used the atomic bomb since it established the allowance of nuclear weapons in war, given the situation the U.S. was in it is justifiable that the atomic bomb was implemented. Opponents that argue against the U.S. deploying the atomic bomb are not realizing that hindsight is 20/20. After six years of long, gruesome battle the U.S. would want to put an end to the war as quickly and effectively as possible and it would be unlikely that they would carefully consider what the usage of the atomic bomb would entail in future war policies. The options from those who dissented the usage of the bomb are impractical and unrealistic. Perhaps invitation of the Soviet Union onto the Potsdam Declaration would have led to JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s surrender, but without knowing whether the USSR would hold up their promise it would be a risky compromise. And the U.S. was right to think that it would take a significant force to make Japan surrender as the corruption from the military officials would continue to thwart any notions of surrendering. The dropping of the atomic bombs was a necessity to influence the Emperor to take control and finally end WWII.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Religion's Influence on Ancient Greek - Research Paper Example Marveling activities were the greatest significant factors of the Greek religion as much emphasis was laid on pleasing their gods so that they could enjoy their lives devoid of oppression and difficulties. Several rituals were conducted as well as rites, sacrifices, and ceremonies were held all in the name of impressing and pleasing the gods. Erection of temples and statues at selected places, were chosen as their holy grounds where they could provide sacrifices to their gods. This paper, examines the role played by the religion in swaying and influencing the ancient laws, arts, as well as the daily life practices by the ancient Greek people. It examines the significance of religion in this ancient Greek society. the Greek society, religion was a significant feature in the cultural practices with the sacrifices and frequent praying to the gods serving as a unifying function of people, with n aim to impressing the gods. They believed in life after death therefore, had faith that after a lifetime, a complete fresh and different life lay ahead of them. Even though the ancient Greek religious practices are practically extinct in their original model, it exists in their culture, religion of the current western practices, as well as their thoughts. In the ancient world, there was not a distinct difference between religion and philosophy entities. Plato 429 - 347 BC "Is that which is holy loved by the gods because it is holy, or is it holy because it is loved by the gods?" 2 "What I say is that 'just' or 'right' means nothing but what is in the interest of the stronger party." 3 The convictions of an average Greek could have been swayed both by the customary faiths and beliefs about their gods as well as the derived thoughts from the philosophersÃ¢â¬â¢ teachings. Currently, the teachings by the foremost philosophers such as Socrates and Plato, are often classified as religious presently, which provides the meaning of life, feature of the universe, life after death, and God or gods. Religion provided the structure and regularity for all the features of society and life. Whereas calendars were personal to every city, it was common practice to utilize imitative from the godsÃ¢â¬â¢ names to give a name to months. GreekÃ¢â¬â¢s religion center of attention was on the consecrated activities as well as customs rather than virtuous convictions and silent praying. The practice of insertion of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s hand on the bible and swearing to it in such places as the courts was an inspiration born in the ancient Greek. In the ancient Greek, all those caught up in a court process, first had to make an appeal to the gods as potential benefactors or punishers, a responsibility then conditional on effectively recognizing the falsehood or truth by the individual who pledged to the oath. Anacharsis - 6th Century BC "Written laws are like a spider's webs; they will catch, it is true, the weak and poor, but would be torn in pieces by the rich and powe rful." Connecting with the gods was therefore done in numerous human legal concerns which could vary from basic domestic misunderstandings to interstate agreements. Most prominent portions of Greek literature, The Odyssey and The Iliad included stories about humansÃ¢â¬â¢ relations with gods. A number of carvings were created for the purpose of reverence to the gods. Such include the statue of Athena found in Parthenon. Other pieces of hunting pictures, battling views, the portraits of the gods and heroes as well, were commonly represented on the pieces of ceramics. Aristotle 384 - 322 BC; We make war that we may live in peace, Every art and every investigation, and
Saturday, February 1, 2020
The Accounting Scandal at WorldCom - Essay Example The case study shall then discuss the specific nature, and occurrence of financial statement fraud and examines how the fraud was discovered from a forensic accounting perspective. The research shall also look at the results of the regulatory investigation and criminal prosecution in trying to understand the potential consequences of the fraud to the corporation -- the management, board of trustees, shareholders - the employees and the investing public. The research shall conclude with a discussion of the lessons offered by the WorldCom case for evaluating future financial statement and accounting fraud cases. The turn of the century saw Corporate America hitting the news headlines many a time nationally and internationally; however, for the wrongest reasons - disgraceful scandals of financial accounting frauds by some of the most high-held. I. Introduction The turn of the century saw Corporate America hitting the news headlines many a time nationally and internationally; however, for the wrongest reasons - disgraceful scandals of financial accounting frauds by some of the most high-held corporations. Beginning with Xerox Corporation in 2000, a series of financial accounting scandals surfaced the corporate American landscape in these years, exposing the depraved and disgraceful faces of corporate greed and corruption. Disclosing fraudulent misrepresentation in financial statements worth multi-million dollars and/or other accounting irregularities, eventually collapsing and filing bankruptcy, many large and reputed companies such as Enron, Tyco International, Kmart, Global Crossing, WorldCom, et al literally shocked the business world. The exposure not only resulted in indictment and ignominy of the principal players in the fraud and potential losses to the company and public investors but also caused an inevitable erosion of public conf idence and trust in corporate actions, the cornerstone of U.S. market capitalism. The series of financial accounting frauds that surfaced the corporate American landscape in the late 1990s and early 2000s has brought to fore the role and significance of forensic accountants and forensic accounting perspectives - "the how and why" of financial statements - in corporate accounting and auditing practices. [Thiede, 2003]Ã
Friday, January 24, 2020
We Are Spending Too Much On Prisons Ã Would you believe that America has spent around five hundred billion dollars on prisons.(Butterfield) Why are the tax payers of America spending so much money on prisons and not other effective solutions to stopping crime? The American legislation is closed minded about reducing crime. They believe that prison is the one and only solution. Since crime keeps occurring, more and more prisons need to be built and kept running for the increasing numbers of inmates that are pouring into prisons. Prison may be part of the solution, but there are other alternatives to help criminals. If we were to incorporate facilities like drug rehabilitation and job training into the criminal justice system then crime would be greatly reduced. Prisoners would commit fewer crimes after the experience of these facilities, therefore reducing the cost of building and maintaining prisons. The end result will be that the American tax payer's dollars will be available to go to more productive things than prison s. Ã Prisons require an abundance of money to be run properly and effectively. By using taxes to pay for prisons the American public pays to support the lives of inmates and all of their needs. Prisoners require food, drink, beds, supplies for doing other activities and all of the overlooked things in normal life that go along with these necessities. Inmates have special needs like all of us do. Inmates reguire medical care, for example some have AIDS or other diseases that require medicine which cumulate large bills over time.(Luzadder) Imagine the money amassed over a life sentence of paying for medicine. The American public pays for all of these expenses added to the actual building of the prison f... ...imes which would inevitably send him back to prison. While making perfect sense this solution drastically changes the concept of prison. The effects of social programs integrated with prisons start with helping direct the taxpayers money to more prolific uses, and expand to making people in America smarter, more educated less dangerous people. Ã Works Cited Federal Bureau of Prisons : http://www.bop.gov/ Inciardi, Dr. James A., A Corrections-Based Continuum of Effective Drug Abuse Treatment. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Avialable: http://www.ncjrs.org/txtfiles/contdrug.txt Butterfield, Fox. "Prison: Where the Money Is." N.Y. Times, June 1, 1996 Luzadder, Dan. "House gets Bill That Pours Funds Into Prisons, Colleges." Rocky Mountain News Capitol Bureau. Avialable: http://insidedenver.com/extra/legislature/0325budg0.html Ã
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Edmund Emil Kemper III was born on December 18, 1948, in Burbank, California to Clarnell and Ed Kemper Jr. He was the only son of the family. Edmund's childhood was anything but normal. While most other little boys were playing games pretending they were super heroes, Edmund was pretending he was in a gas chamber and his sister was throwing the switch. Once the switch was thrown he would wiggle around on the floor as if he were dying of asphyxiation. Edmund also enjoyed cutting the heads and hands off of his sisters' new dolls. He had trouble relating to his peers because he was afraid of them, afraid of any intimate contact between himself and another. During his childhood years, Edmund also found it amusing to torture the family cats. He buried the first cat up to its neck then kept the severed head as a trophy. His mother replaced the cat. With the new cat Edmund decided to continue his torturing spree by cutting it with a machete, exposing its brains and dissecting the body. These ants resulted in numerous pieces of trophies for him to keep. Until his mother discovered them in his closet. From this point on is when his mother truly began to express her opinions of him as having a Ã¢â¬Å"weirdoÃ¢â¬ personality. lf his home life was not weird enough, Edmund had a crush on his second grade teacher, Whom his sisters teased him about relentlessly. With this crush developed fantasies of killing his second grade teacher. Edmund's reply to his sister's teasing was, Ã¢â¬Å"If I kiss her, l'd have to kill her first. Ã¢â¬ On numerous occasions Edmund visited her house with his father's bayonet and his fantasies. With Edmund's home life already a rough one and the fantasies of killing already in his head, the news of his parents divorce did not sit well. His parents fought constantly leaving Edmund, now age 9, to bounce back and forth between them. After his mother became fed up with him she sent him to live with his father, Ed Jr. , and his stepmother. However, this did not last long before he was sent to live with his paternal grandparents at the age of thirteen in rural North Folk, Ca. Edmund did not get along with his grandparents any better than he did with his mother or father. In fact, Edmund lasted with them until August 27, 1964, at age fourteen, when he shot his grandmother in the back of the head with a . 2 caliber rifle after an argument. He later stabbed her lifeless body numerous times with a kitchen knife, and then he shot his grandfather as he returned home. He called his mother and told her what had happened and waited patiently for her and the police to arrive. Once the police arrived and they questioned him about what had happened, Edmund's only response was, Ã¢â¬Å"I just wondered how it would feel to shoot grandma. Ã¢â¬ Edmund later explained that grandpa was shot out of mercy, a way to spare him from the discovery of his wife. As a punishment for the murder of his grandparents, the courts sentenced Edmund to Atascadero State Hospital where he was placed in the criminally insane unit. Atascadero State Hospital is an all-male, maximum security, forensic facility serving the entire state of California. Upon entering the facility the psychiatrists there examined and tested Edmund's level of intelligence and came up with the findings that he had an IQ of about 145 and possessed the personality disordered titled personality trait disturbance, passive-aggressive type. While in ASH Edmund became such a model inmate that the doctors trained Edmund in how to administer the tests. Knowing how the tests worked allowed Edmund to learn ways in which to provide the doctors with appropriate responses that would pave the way for him to be later deemed no longer a danger to society. Once Edmund passed the tests, he was released back into the world under his mother's care. Now age twenty-one, Edmund returned to his mother's house and fell right back into the tormented ways. Edmund's mother blamed him for everything. She would repeatedly yell at him that it was his fault she had not been with a man for a number of years. With Edmund's new found way of life, he decided he would try to find work. His mother saw how intent he was on getting a job so she tried to have his juvenile records sealed. He first worked at a Green Giant canning plant as a laborer before he applied with the State Division of Highways in 1971; a job that would allow Edmund to hang out with law enforcement. He tried hard to get a job in law enforcement but was rejected due to his large size, of six foot nine inches, and weighing almost 300 pounds. But his new found friends supplied him with handcuffs, a training badge and gun. Part of Edmund's release agreement was to visit with a psychologist regularly. Edmund did this, however as he began to get close with the police officers, and attend his weekly sessions, he began training himself for his next kill. That is he would pick up hitchhikers and provide them with the necessary ride, putting on the Ã¢â¬Å"gentle giantÃ¢â¬ charade so as to provide a sense of genuine sincerity for those whom he picked up. This manipulation and control over the situation are primary talents of this psychopathic serial killer. Edmund's first kill did not happen until May of 1972, in which he picked up two college women, Mary Anne Pesce and Anita Luchessa, on a freeway ramp. Edmund knew the area so well that he was able to get the car turned around without the girls having any clue that their direction had changed. Edmund then drove to a remote area he learned about from his interaction with the highway department. Upon arriving to the area, Edmund handcuffed Pesce in the backseat and placed Luchessa in the trunk of the car. Edmund returned to Pesce and placed a plastic bag over head, and tied it on with the belt of a bathrobe. However, the belt broke and Pesce had managed to bite through the bag, so Edmund drew his knife and began stabbing her inthe back. These stabbings did not seem to have any effect on her because she was still wiggling around and fighting back. Then Edmund grabbed her by the chin, pulled back her head, and slit her throat. After killing Pesce, Edmund went back to the trunk and began stabbing Luchessa repeatedly in the throat, eyes, heart and forearms. Now that these women were dead, he took them back to his apartment where he dissected their bodies, took Polaroid pictures, and cut off their heads. I remember there was actually a sexual thrill. You hear that little Ã¢â¬Å"pop' and pull their heads off and hold their heads up by the hair. Whipping their heads off their body sitting there. That'd get me offÃ¢â¬ (Vronsky). Edmund took the remainder of the two women and put them into plastic bags, of which he buried in the Santa Cruz hills, their torsos and limbs in one area, their hands in another. All the while disguising the burial ground with techniques he had learned as a Boy Scout. With the excitement of the killing behind him, Edmund began to return to his normal routine of attending bars filled with law enforcement personnel. All the while he was attending these local gatherings; he was remaining one step ahead of all clues about the cases. In September 1972, Edmund struck again, only this time it was a fifteen year old girl, Aiko Koo, on her way to dance class in San Francisco. Edmund took her to a remote location where he strangled her into unconsciousness, raped her, and then placed her body in the trunk of his car. On his way home however, he stopped off for a beer. When he returned to his car he opened the trunk and, admiring my catch like a fisherman's looked in at the little girl. The next day Edmund buried the body in his typical fashion, but kept her head. With the head of Koo in the trunk of his car he drove to the psychiatrist's office for his regularly scheduled appointment. While at the appointment, the psychiatrist is quoted as saying, Ã¢â¬Å"If I were seeing this patient without any history available or without getting the history from him, I would think that we're dealing with a very well adjusted young man who had initiative, intelligence and who was free of any psychiatric illnessÃ¢â¬ ¦ In effect, we are dealing with two different people when we talk of the 15 year old boy who committed the murder and of the 23 year old man we see before us now. . . it is my opinion that he has made a very excellent response to the years of treatment and rehabilitation. . . Ã¢â¬ (Vronsky). No one knows for sure what the psychiatrists would have said that day if they had known of the head in Edmund's trunk. After living on his own for a while, Edmund decided to move back home with his domineering mother. Since the last killing in September Edmund was doing well, that is until he picked up college student Cindy Schall. Edmund shot Schall in the head and brought her body back to his mother's house, and when she wasn't looking he carried her up to his room and put her in his closet. The next day while his mother was at work Edmund took the corpse to bed and had sex with it. After this he drained the body of blood in his mother's bathtub, cut the body into pieces, bagged them and threw them off of a cliff. He kept the head, this time repeatedly having sex with it. When he grew tired of the head Edmund buried it in the backyard facing up towards his mother's bedroom window. The local university at this time had gotten word of a string of unsolved murders and warned its students not to take rides from strangers. Lucky for Edmund his mother worked at the university and frequently needed him to pick her up, so he ended up with a decal for the university to allow for his easy access. His mother was well liked, respected, and known for her kindness at the university. Edmund used the decal on his car to pick up two more unsuspecting college women. He then took these women back to his mother's house where he decapitated one of them in the trunk of his car. Later that night while his mother was sleeping he carried the headless body up to his room. Edmund has been quoted as saying, in Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ the head is where everything is at, the brain, eyes, mouth. That's the person. I remember being told as a kid, you cut off the head and the body diesÃ¢â¬ ¦. that's not quite true. With a girl, there is a lot left in the girl's body without the head. Of course, the personality is gone (Vronsky). Edmund went from the kill of the two college women until one fatal Easter weekend in 1973. On this weekend Edmund had finally conquered what had driven his hatred all these years, Edmund killed his mother. While his mother lay sleeping in her bed the night before Easter Sunday, Edmund went in with a claw hammer and smashed his mother's head in. Edmund then decided, what's good for my victims was good for my mother's He then proceeded to decapitate her, and raped her headless corpse. He then removed her larynx and tried to run it through the garbage disposal only to have it jam and spit the larynx back at him. Edmund later recalled to police as saying, Ã¢â¬Å"even when she was dead, she was still bitching at me. I couldn't get her to shut up. Ã¢â¬ This same evening Edmund called and invited his mother's best friend over for a Ã¢â¬Å"surpriseÃ¢â¬ dinner party. Upon her arrival however, Edmund punched her, strangled her, and again cut off the head which he placed in his bed. He then slept in his mothers bed. The next day Edmund got in his car and began to drive aimlessly. He drove all the way from Santa Cruz, Ca. to Colorado. A11 the while listening to the radio hoping for some sort of news flash to come out of the killing he had just committed. But since no such thing happened, and he had grown tired of waiting, Edmund called the Santa Cruz police confessing to all of the crimes. They however, knowing Edmund as friend, did not believe him, forcing him to call several times before they took his word. Which then lead local authorities to his destination where he surrendered willingly. While awaiting trial, Edmund attempted twice to commit suicide by slashing his mists, and was soon transferred to a solitary cell. The trial itself was rather short Ã¢â¬â the evidence was there, and it showed clear premeditation. A1l of the psychiatrists asked, testified that Edmund was sane at the times he committed his crimes. Edmund was put into prison, where he calmed down and became a well-behaved inmate. At the trial he was asked what he thought would be an appropriate punishment for his actions, his response was Ã¢â¬Å"death by torture. Ã¢â¬ He was sentences to response was death by torturers He was sentenced to eight concurrent life-prison terms with possibility of parole. Edmund has been up for parole since 1980, but has been denied every time he's applied. Edmund Kemper is said to have been a egotistic lust killer. That is these people set out not with the interest to kill or hurt anyone, but with the intention of wearing your skin or eating your liver, or in the case of Edmund to have sex with your severed head and decapitated corpse. lts just that your life gets in the way of their fanta sy. In Edmund's instance he explained that the actual killing of each victim had little to do with his fantasies, he goes on to say, Ã¢â¬Å"but what I needed to have was a particular experience with person, and to possess them in the way I wanted to: I had to evict them from their human bodies. (Vronsky). When it comes to classifying Edmund as a psychopath, it can be done but in the broadest sense of a definition. A psychopath derives their tendencies from biological predispositions. Including, but not limited to faulty family enviro ends, aloof parents, and inconsistent rewards and punishments. In Edmund's life his parents w re never really there for him, they just shuffled him back and forth before finally sending him to live with extended family. The punishments were inconsistent because his mother locked him in his basement Ã¢â¬Å"bedroomÃ¢â¬ due to the fear felt by his sister even though he did nothing to provoke the fear. I believe more appropriately Edmund Kemper fits the definition of having a Homicidal Pattern Disorder. Which according to the future volume of the DSM will be defined as deliberate and purposeful murder or attempt at murder of strangers on more than one occasion; tension or affective arousal at some time before the arts; and pleasure, gratification, or relief in commission or reflection of the ants. In the end, I believe that all Edmund truly wanted was a woman's love. Something he wished for greatly, but was always an illusion, never attainable. It is clear what Edmund's purpose for killing these women was, the need to feel a close intimate connection with a member of the opposite sex, more specifically a connection between himself and his mother. Once this conquest was fulfilled, the intimate connection between him and his mother, Edmund willingly turned himself in because his mission was over.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Abstract By the end of this century, the planet world will be home to more than 11 billion people. Feeding all of them in a truly sustainable way remains undoubtedly one of the greatest challenges of this generation. The population boom is sometimes feared as one of the major leading problems to the food security and malnutrition issue; this essay analysis shows that the reasons many suspects are not entirely true; itÃ¢â¬â¢s not the number, nor is it about enough land. The world has already whatÃ¢â¬â¢s required to produce enough food, but doing it at an acceptable cost to the planet will depend on dramatic changes from how we eat, what we grow and how we do it. There is a need driven by the global political will to adopt and incorporate best ideas and strategies from successful existing and previous practices; green revolution, small-large agriculture, organic and local agriculture all combined with new innovations systems that focus on sustainable food production. 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